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Literature Resources

To learn more about COVID-19, it is imperative to read the literature. Here, you can find peer-reviewed articles that explore how social determinants of health play a significant role in who is affected by the virus, vaccine hesitancy, and more. Begin by clicking any of the titles below!

Aging in COVID-19: Vulnerability, Immunity and Intervention

We hypothesize that age-related decline and dysregulation of immune function, i.e., immunosenescence and inflammaging play a major role in contributing to heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes in older adults. Much remains to be learned about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We need to begin partitioning all immunological outcome data by age to better understand disease heterogeneity and aging. Such knowledge is critical not only for understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis but also for COVID-19 vaccine development.

Hospitalization and Mortality Among Black patients and White Patients with COVID-19

Many reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have highlighted age- and sex-related differences in health outcomes. More information is needed about racial and ethnic differences in outcomes from Covid-19.

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19-related Infections, Hospitalizations, and Deaths : A Systematic Review

Purpose: To evaluate racial/ethnic disparities in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rates and COVID-19 outcomes, factors contributing to disparities, and interventions to reduce them

Poverty and Food Insecurity May Increase as the Threat of COVID-19 Spreads

The COVID-19 pandemic may increase poverty and FI levels, resulting from the absence of or weak political, economic and social interventions to maintain jobs, as well as compromised food production and distribution chains and reduced access to healthy foods in different countries around the world, especially the poorest ones, where social and economic inequality was already historically high; the pandemic heightens and uncovers the vulnerability of poor populations. 

COVID-19 and Co-morbidities: Deleterious Impact on Infected Patients

COVID-19 patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), hypertension, malignancies, HIV, and other comorbidities could develop a life-threatening situation. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE-2 receptors found at the surface of the host cells to get inside the cell. Certain comorbidities are associated with a strong ACE-2 receptor expression and higher release of proprotein convertase that enhances the viral entry into the host cells. The comorbidities lead to the COVID-19 patient into a vicious infectious circle of life and are substantially associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

The Relationship Between Social Determinants of Health and Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Mortality

The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified existing health disparities for marginalized populations in the United States (U.S.), particularly among Black Americans. Social determinants of health are powerful drivers of health outcomes that could influence COVID-19 racial disparities.

The Burden of Loneliness: Implications of the Social Determinants of Health During COVID-19

These data identify younger females, individuals with lower income, and those living alone as experiencing greater loneliness and mental health challenges during the height of the pandemic in Canada. We highlight the strong relationship between loneliness, depression and anxiety, and emphasize increased vulnerability among certain cohorts.

The Association of Social Determinants of Health with COVID-19 Mortality in Rural and Urban Counties

Percent of Blacks, HIV, and diabetes rates were significantly associated with higher mortality in rural and urban counties, whereas the unemployment rate (adjusted RR = 1.479, CrI = 1.171, 1.867) and residential segregation (adjusted RR = 1.034, CrI = 1.019, 1.050) were associated with increased mortality in urban counties.

Census Tract Patterns and Contextual Social Determinants of Health Associated with COVID-19 in a Hispanic Population from South Texas: A Spatiotemporal Perspective

In this study, we investigated the contextual SDOH and their potential association with COVID-19 incidence at the census tract level. The study population consists of a Hispanic population with mostly Mexican American people living in South Texas on the US-Mexico border. The Mexican American population are the largest and fastest-growing Hispanic subgroup in the United States and among those with low socioeconomic status compared to other ethnic groups in the nation [9]. The population in our study has high prevalence of obesity and diabetes [10]; both pre-existing conditions increase the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes [11].

COVID- 19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Race/Ethnicity, Trust, and Fear

We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%).

Addressing Justified Vaccine Hesitancy in the Black Community

According to the CDC, as of December 6, 2021, in total, there have been over 20 million cases and over 365,000 deaths from the virus []. A further dive into these numbers shows that our initial hypothesis has been unfortunately true; Blacks have suffered tremendously and disproportionately from this virus. The racial and ethnic disparities in the effects of COVID-19 are striking. According to APM Research Lab, Blacks are experiencing COVID-19 death tolls exceeding 1 in 800 nationally, while White Americans are experiencing a death toll at 1 in 3125 nationally []. Blacks have COVID-19 death rates of more than 2.7 times White Americans.

Latest Data on COVID-19 Vaccinations by Race/Ethnicity

The increasing equity in vaccination rates likely reflects a combination of efforts focused on increasing vaccination rates among people of color through outreach and education and reducing access and logistical barriers to vaccination, increased interest in getting the vaccine due to spread of the Delta variant, and increases in vaccinations among younger adults and adolescents who include higher shares of people of color compared to other adults.

Emergency Preparedness and Risk Communication Among African American Churches: Leveraging a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership COVID-19 Initiative

Given the COVID-19 disparities among African Americans,
community-based pandemic emergency response efforts are essential to serve and protect the health and well-being of this population. Leveraging the existing infrastructure of an academic–community partnership to support this response facilitates rapid dissemination of culturally relevant resources and materials to economically and socially marginalized communities whose socioeconomic challenges are exacerbated by a public health crisis.

When “Model Minorities” Become “Yellow Peril”—Othering and the Racialization of Asian Americans in the COVID-19 Pandemic

According to a recent survey, more than 30% of Americans have witnessed someone blaming Asians for the coronavirus pandemic, whereas 60% of Asian Americans said they have seen the same behavior (Ellerbeck, 2020). As of 3 June 2020, as many as 2066 instances of harassment against Asians have been reported since mid-March (Borja et al., 2020).


The question is the extent to which people are open to COVID-19 vaccination given that they are now available and are an essential tool to stem the pandemic. In this paper, drawing on a nationally representative sample of American adults, we examined the individual, communication and social determinants that are associated with COVID-19 vaccines acceptance for themselves and for people under their care, for example, children.